van Kleef RGDM, Embry MR, Mitchell CA, Westerink RHS. Neuroactivity screening of botanical extracts using microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. Food Chem Toxicol. 2024 Jan 6;184:114438. doi:

Gerber LS, de Leijer DCA, Rujas Arranz A, Lehmann JMML, Verheul ME, Cassee FR, Westerink RHS. In vitro neurotoxicity of particles from diesel and biodiesel fueled engines following direct and simulated inhalation exposure. Environ Int. 2024 Feb;184:108481. doi: Epub 2024 Feb 5. PMID: 38330748.

van Melis LVJ, Peerdeman AM, Huiberts EHW, van Kleef RGDM, de Groot A, Westerink RHS. Effects of acute insecticide exposure on neuronal activity in vitro in rat cortical cultures. Neurotoxicology. 2024 Apr 9;102:58-67. doi: Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38599286.


Tomagra G, Re A, Varzi V, Aprà P, Britel A, Franchino C, Sturari S, Amine NH, Westerink RHS, Carabelli V, Picollo F. Enhancing the Study of Quantal Exocytotic Events: Combining Diamond Multi-Electrode Arrays with Amperometric PEak Analysis (APE) an Automated Analysis Code. Biosensors (Basel). 2023 Dec 16;13(12):1033. doi:

Meerman JJ, Legler J, Piersma AH, Westerink RHS, Heusinkveld HJ. An adverse outcome pathway for chemical-induced Parkinson’s disease: Calcium is key. Neurotoxicology. 2023 Dec;99:226-243. doi:

Gerber LS, van Kleef RGDM, Fokkens P, Cassee FR, Westerink RH. In vitro neurotoxicity screening of engine oil- and hydraulic fluid-derived aircraft cabin bleed-air contamination. Neurotoxicology. 2023 May;96:184-196. doi:

Poelaert KCK, van Kleef RGDM, Liu M, van Vliet A, Lyoo H, Gerber LS, Narimatsu Y, Büll C, Clausen H, de Vries E, Westerink RHS, van Kuppeveld FJM. Enterovirus D-68 Infection of Primary Rat Cortical Neurons: Entry, Replication, and Functional Consequences. mBio. 2023 Apr 25;14(2):e0024523. doi: Epub 2023 Mar 6. PMID: 36877033; PMCID: PMC10127580.

Tukker AM, Vrolijk MF, van Kleef RGDM, Sijm DTHM, Westerink RHS. Mixture effects of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and drugs targeting voltage-gated sodium channels on spontaneous neuronal activity in vitro. Toxicol Lett. 2023 Jan 15;373:53-61. doi: Epub 2022 Nov 12. PMID: 36375636.

van Melis LVJ, Heusinkveld HJ, Langendoen C, Peters A, Westerink RHS. Organophosphate insecticides disturb neuronal network development and function via non-AChE mediated mechanisms. Neurotoxicology. 2023 Jan;94:35-45. doi: Epub 2022 Nov 5. PMID: 36347328.


Gerber LS, Heusinkveld HJ, Langendoen C, Stahlmecke B, Schins RP, Westerink RH. Acute, sub-chronic and chronic exposures to TiO<sub>2</sub> and Ag nanoparticles differentially affects neuronal function in vitro. Neurotoxicology. 2022 Dec;93:311-323. doi: Epub 2022 Oct 22. PMID: 36283513.

Staal YCM, Li Y, Gerber LS, Fokkens P, Cremers H, Cassee FR, Talhout R, Westerink RHS, Heusinkveld HJ. Neuromodulatory and neurotoxic effects of e-cigarette vapor using a realistic exposure method. Inhal Toxicol. 2023 Mar- Apr;35(3-4):76-85. doi: Epub 2022 Sep 2. PMID: 36053669.

Westerink RHS, Shafer TJ, Fritsche E, van Thriel C. Translational neurotoxicology – The 17th biennial meeting of the International Neurotoxicology Association. Neurotoxicology. 2022 May;90:79-80. doi: Epub 2022 Feb 28. PMID: 35240225.


Martikainen MV, Aakko-Saksa P, van den Broek L, Cassee FR, Carare RO, Chew S, Dinnyes A, Giugno R, Kanninen KM, Malm T, Muala A, Nedergaard M, Oudin A, Oyola P, Pfeiffer TV, Rönkkö T, Saarikoski S, Sandström T, Schins RPF, Topinka J, Yang M, Zeng X, Westerink RHS, Jalava PI. TUBE Project: Transport-Derived Ultrafines and the Brain Effects. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Dec 28;19(1):311. doi: PMID: 35010571; PMCID: PMC8751045.

He RW, Houtzager MMG, Jongeneel WP, Westerink RHS, Cassee FR. In vitro hazard characterization of simulated aircraft cabin bleed-air contamination in lung models using an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system. Environ Int. 2021 Nov;156:106718. doi: Epub 2021 Jun 21. PMID: 34166876.

Gerber LS, van Melis LVJ, van Kleef RGDM, de Groot A, Westerink RHS. Culture of Rat Primary Cortical Cells for Microelectrode Array (MEA) Recordings to Screen for Acute and Developmental Neurotoxicity. Curr Protoc. 2021 Jun;1(6):e158. doi: PMID: 34152700.

Koppen A, Hunault CC, van Kleef RGDM, van Velzen AG, Westerink RHS, de Vries I, de Lange DW. Estimation of the risk of local and systemic effects in infants after ingestion of low-concentrated weak acids from descaling products. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2022 Jan;60(1):71-75. doi: Epub 2021 Jun 14. PMID: 34121559.

Prado J, Westerink RHS, Popov-Celeketic J, Steen-Louws C, Pandit A, Versteeg S, van de Worp W, Kanters DHAJ, Reedquist KA, Koenderman L, Hack CE, Eijkelkamp N. Cytokine receptor clustering in sensory neurons with an engineered cytokine fusion protein triggers unique pain resolution pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Mar 16;118(11):e2009647118. doi: PMID: 33836560; PMCID: PMC7980471.

He RW, Braakhuis HM, Vandebriel RJ, Staal YCM, Gremmer ER, Fokkens PHB, Kemp C, Vermeulen J, Westerink RHS, Cassee FR. Optimization of an air-liquid interface <i>in vitro</i> cell co-culture model to estimate the hazard of aerosol exposures. J Aerosol Sci. 2021 Mar;153:105703. doi: PMID: 33658726; PMCID: PMC7874005.

Tukker AM, Westerink RHS. Novel test strategies for in vitro seizure liability assessment. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2021 Aug;17(8):923-936. doi: Epub 2021 Feb 17. PMID: 33595380; PMCID: PMC8367052.

Kasteel EEJ, Westerink RHS. Refining <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in silico</i> neurotoxicity approaches by accounting for interspecies and interindividual differences in toxicodynamics. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2021 Aug;17(8):1007-1017. doi: Epub 2021 Feb 14. PMID: 33586568.


Bauer L, Manganaro R, Zonsics B, Hurdiss DL, Zwaagstra M, Donselaar T, Welter NGE, van Kleef RGDM, Lopez ML, Bevilacqua F, Raman T, Ferla S, Bassetto M, Neyts J, Strating JRPM, Westerink RHS, Brancale A, van Kuppeveld FJM. Rational design of highly potent broad-spectrum enterovirus inhibitors targeting the nonstructural protein 2C. PLoS Biol. 2020 Nov 6;18(11):e3000904. doi: PMID: 33156822; PMCID: PMC7673538.

Kasteel EEJ, Nijmeijer SM, Darney K, Lautz LS, Dorne JLCM, Kramer NI, Westerink RHS. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in electric eel and human donor blood: an in vitro approach to investigate interspecies differences and human variability in toxicodynamics. Arch Toxicol. 2020 Dec;94(12):4055-4065. doi: Epub 2020 Oct 10. PMID: 33037899; PMCID: PMC7655571.

de Leeuw VC, van Oostrom CTM, Westerink RHS, Piersma AH, Heusinkveld HJ, Hessel EVS. An efficient neuron-astrocyte differentiation protocol from human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors to assess chemical-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Reprod Toxicol. 2020 Dec;98:107-116. doi: Epub 2020 Sep 12. PMID: 32931842.

Tukker AM, Wijnolts FMJ, de Groot A, Westerink RHS. Applicability of hiPSC-Derived Neuronal Cocultures and Rodent Primary Cortical Cultures for In Vitro Seizure Liability Assessment. Toxicol Sci. 2020 Nov 1;178(1):71-87. doi: PMID: 32866265; PMCID: PMC7657345.

Prüst M, Meijer J, Westerink RHS. The plastic brain: neurotoxicity of micro- and nanoplastics. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2020 Jun 8;17(1):24. doi: PMID: 32513186; PMCID: PMC7282048.

Lupu D, Andersson P, Bornehag CG, Demeneix B, Fritsche E, Gennings C, Lichtensteiger W, Leist M, Leonards PEG, Ponsonby AL, Scholze M, Testa G, Tresguerres JAF, Westerink RHS, Zalc B, Rüegg J. The ENDpoiNTs Project: Novel Testing Strategies for Endocrine Disruptors Linked to Developmental Neurotoxicity. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 1;21(11):3978. doi: PMID: 32492937; PMCID: PMC7312023.

Myers G, van Wijngaarden E, Lasley SM, Cranmer JM, Lein PJ, Westerink RHS. Preface to the NeuroToxicology Special Issue, “Mercury in fish: The Seychelles child development study”. Neurotoxicology. 2020 Jul;79:211. doi: Epub 2020 May 11. PMID: 32437763.

Zwartsen A, Hondebrink L, de Lange DW, Westerink RHS. Hyperthermia exacerbates the acute effects of psychoactive substances on neuronal activity measured using microelectrode arrays (MEAs) in rat primary cortical cultures in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2020 Apr 19;397:115015. doi: Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32320794.

Tukker AM, Bouwman LMS, van Kleef RGDM, Hendriks HS, Legler J, Westerink RHS. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) acutely affect human <sub>1</sub>β<sub>2</sub>γ<sub>2L</sub> GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor and spontaneous neuronal network function in vitro. Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 24;10(1):5311. doi: PMID: 32210279; PMCID: PMC7093421.

Liu F, Westerink RHS. Neurotoxicity of drug of abuse. Neurotoxicology. 2020 May;78:161-162. doi: Epub 2020 Feb 20. PMID: 32088325.

Zwartsen A, Olijhoek ME, Westerink RHS, Hondebrink L. Hazard Characterization of Synthetic Cathinones Using Viability, Monoamine Reuptake, and Neuronal Activity Assays. Front Neurosci. 2020 Jan 29;14:9. doi: PMID: 32063828; PMCID: PMC7000521.

Post Y, Puschhof J, Beumer J, Kerkkamp HM, de Bakker MAG, Slagboom J, de Barbanson B, Wevers NR, Spijkers XM, Olivier T, Kazandjian TD, Ainsworth S, Iglesias CL, van de Wetering WJ, Heinz MC, van Ineveld RL, van Kleef RGDM, Begthel H, Korving J, Bar-Ephraim YE, Getreuer W, Rios AC, Westerink RHS, Snippert HJG, van Oudenaarden A, Peters PJ, Vonk FJ, Kool J, Richardson MK, Casewell NR, Clevers H. Snake Venom Gland Organoids. Cell. 2020 Jan 23;180(2):233-247.e21. doi: PMID: 31978343.


Zwartsen A, Verboven AHA, van Kleef RGDM, Wijnolts FMJ, Westerink RHS, Hondebrink L. Corrigendum to “Measuring inhibition of monoamine reuptake transporters by new psychoactive substances (NPS) in real-time using a high- throughput, fluorescence-based assay” [Toxicology in Vitro (2017) 60-71]. Toxicol In Vitro. 2020 Feb;62:104631. doi: Epub 2019 Nov 6. Erratum for: Toxicol In Vitro. 2017 Dec;45(Pt 1):60-71. PMID: 31703969.

Tukker AM, Van Kleef RGDM, Wijnolts FMJ, De Groot A, Westerink RHS. Towards animal-free neurotoxicity screening: Applicability of hiPSC-derived neuronal models for in vitro seizure liability assessment. ALTEX. 2020;37(1):121-135. doi: Epub 2019 Nov 2. PMID: 31686111.

Zwartsen A, de Korte T, Nacken P, de Lange DW, Westerink RHS, Hondebrink L. Cardiotoxicity screening of illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS) in human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes using microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2019 Nov;136:102-112. doi: Epub 2019 Sep 14. PMID: 31526813.

Bal-Price A, Hogberg HT, Crofton KM, Daneshian M, FitzGerald RE, Fritsche E, Heinonen T, Hougaard Bennekou S, Klima S, Piersma AH, Sachana M, Shafer TJ, Terron A, Monnet-Tschudi F, Viviani B, Waldmann T, Westerink RHS, Wilks MF, Witters H, Zurich MG, Leist M. Corrigendum to Recommendation on test readiness criteria for new approach methods in toxicology: exemplified for developmental neurotoxicity. ALTEX. 2019;36(3):506. doi: Erratum for: ALTEX. 2018 Feb 23;35(3):306-352. PMID: 31329255.

Richardson JR, Fitsanakis V, Westerink RHS, Kanthasamy AG. Neurotoxicity of pesticides. Acta Neuropathol. 2019 Sep;138(3):343-362. doi: Epub 2019 Jun 13. PMID: 31197504; PMCID: PMC6826260.

Zwartsen A, Hondebrink L, Westerink RH. Changes in neuronal activity in rat primary cortical cultures induced by illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS) following prolonged exposure and washout to mimic human exposure scenarios. Neurotoxicology. 2019 Sep;74:28-39. doi: Epub 2019 May 9. PMID: 31078573.

Zwartsen A, Litjens CHC, Hondebrink L, van den Heuvel JJMW, Greupink R, Russel FGM, de Lange DW, Legler J, Koenderink JB, Westerink RHS. Differential effects of psychoactive substances on human wildtype and polymorphic T356M dopamine transporters (DAT). Toxicology. 2019 Jun 15;422:69-75. doi: Epub 2019 Apr 19. PMID: 31009648.

Westerink RHS, van Thriel C, Levin ED, Shafer TJ. From molecular mechanisms to functional impact: Developing integrated analyses in neurotoxicology – The 16<sup>th</sup> biennial meeting International Neurotoxicology Association and 8<sup>th</sup> meeting of the NeuroToxicity Society. Neurotoxicology. 2019 May;72:125-126. doi: Epub 2018 Nov 6. PMID: 30412720.


Dusza HM, Cenijn PH, Kamstra JH, Westerink RHS, Leonards PEG, Hamers T. Effects of environmental pollutants on calcium release and uptake by rat cortical microsomes. Neurotoxicology. 2018 Dec;69:266-277. doi: Epub 2018 Jul 26. PMID: 30056177.

Tukker AM, Wijnolts FMJ, de Groot A, Westerink RHS. Human iPSC-derived neuronal models for in vitro neurotoxicity assessment. Neurotoxicology. 2018 Jul;67:215-225. doi: Epub 2018 Jun 19. PMID: 29909083.

Zwartsen A, Hondebrink L, Westerink RH. Neurotoxicity screening of new psychoactive substances (NPS): Effects on neuronal activity in rat cortical cultures using microelectrode arrays (MEA). Neurotoxicology. 2018 May;66:87-97. doi: Epub 2018 Mar 20. PMID: 29572046.

Bal-Price A, Hogberg HT, Crofton KM, Daneshian M, FitzGerald RE, Fritsche E, Heinonen T, Hougaard Bennekou S, Klima S, Piersma AH, Sachana M, Shafer TJ, Terron A, Monnet-Tschudi F, Viviani B, Waldmann T, Westerink RHS, Wilks MF, Witters H, Zurich MG, Leist M. Recommendation on test readiness criteria for new approach methods in toxicology: Exemplified for developmental neurotoxicity. ALTEX. 2018;35(3):306-352. doi: Epub 2018 Feb 23. Erratum in: ALTEX. 2019;36(3):506. PMID: 29485663; PMCID: PMC6545888.

Hondebrink L, Zwartsen A, Westerink RHS. Effect fingerprinting of new psychoactive substances (NPS): What can we learn from in vitro data? Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Feb;182:193-224. doi: Epub 2017 Oct 31. PMID: 29097307.


Heusinkveld HJ, Westerink RHS. Comparison of different in vitro cell models for the assessment of pesticide-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Toxicol In Vitro. 2017 Dec;45(Pt 1):81-88. doi: Epub 2017 Jul 31. PMID: 28774849.

Zwartsen A, Verboven AHA, van Kleef RGDM, Wijnolts FMJ, Westerink RHS, Hondebrink L. Measuring inhibition of monoamine reuptake transporters by new psychoactive substances (NPS) in real-time using a high-throughput, fluorescence-based assay. Toxicol In Vitro. 2017 Dec;45(Pt 1):60-71. doi: Epub 2017 May 13. Erratum in: Toxicol In Vitro. 2020 Feb;62:104631. PMID: 28506818.

Hondebrink L, Kasteel EEJ, Tukker AM, Wijnolts FMJ, Verboven AHA, Westerink RHS. Neuropharmacological characterization of the new psychoactive substance methoxetamine. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Sep 1;123:1-9. doi: Epub 2017 Apr 25. PMID: 28454981.

van Thriel C, Levin E, Lein P, Costa LG, Westerink RH. Neural mechanisms of functional impairment across the lifespan: The 15th Biennial Meeting of the International Neurotoxicology Association and 39th Annual Meeting of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society. Neurotoxicology. 2017 Mar;59:131-132. doi: PMID: 28347437.

Kasteel EE, Westerink RH. Comparison of the acute inhibitory effects of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) in rat and human neuronal networks for risk assessment purposes. Toxicol Lett. 2017 Mar 15;270:12-16. doi: Epub 2017 Feb 10. PMID: 28192153.


Dingemans MM, Schütte MG, Wiersma DM, de Groot A, van Kleef RG, Wijnolts FM, Westerink RH. Chronic 14-day exposure to insecticides or methylmercury modulates neuronal activity in primary rat cortical cultures. Neurotoxicology. 2016 Dec;57:194-202. doi: Epub 2016 Oct 5. PMID: 27720795.

Aschner M, Ceccatelli S, Daneshian M, Fritsche E, Hasiwa N, Hartung T, Hogberg HT, Leist M, Li A, Mundi WR, Padilla S, Piersma AH, Bal-Price A, Seiler A, Westerink RH, Zimmer B, Lein PJ. Reference compounds for alternative test methods to indicate developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential of chemicals: example lists and criteria for their selection and use. ALTEX. 2017;34(1):49-74. doi: Epub 2016 Jul 25. PMID: 27452664; PMCID: PMC5250586.

Heusinkveld HJ, Wahle T, Campbell A, Westerink RHS, Tran L, Johnston H, Stone V, Cassee FR, Schins RPF. Neurodegenerative and neurological disorders by small inhaled particles. Neurotoxicology. 2016 Sep;56:94-106. doi: Epub 2016 Jul 19. PMID: 27448464.

Meulenberg CJW, de Groot A, Westerink RHS, Vijverberg HPM. Organic solvent- induced changes in membrane geometry in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells – a common narcotic effect? Neurotoxicology. 2016 Jul;55:74-82. doi: Epub 2016 May 24. PMID: 27235192.

Hondebrink L, Verboven AHA, Drega WS, Schmeink S, de Groot MWGDM, van Kleef RGDM, Wijnolts FMJ, de Groot A, Meulenbelt J, Westerink RHS. Neurotoxicity screening of (illicit) drugs using novel methods for analysis of microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. Neurotoxicology. 2016 Jul;55:1-9. doi: Epub 2016 May 2. PMID: 27149913.

Heusinkveld HJ, van Vliet AC, Nijssen PC, Westerink RH. In vitro neurotoxic hazard characterisation of dinitrophenolic herbicides. Toxicol Lett. 2016 Jun 11;252:62-9. doi: Epub 2016 Apr 19. PMID: 27106277.

Tukker AM, de Groot MW, Wijnolts FM, Kasteel EE, Hondebrink L, Westerink RH. Is the time right for in vitro neurotoxicity testing using human iPSC-derived neurons? ALTEX. 2016;33(3):261-71. doi: Epub 2016 Mar 24. PMID: 27010910.

Duarte DJ, Rutten JMM, van den Berg M, Westerink RHS. In vitro neurotoxic hazard characterization of different tricresyl phosphate (TCP) isomers and mixtures. Neurotoxicology. 2017 Mar;59:222-230. doi: Epub 2016 Feb 3. PMID: 26851706.

de Groot MW, van Kleef RG, de Groot A, Westerink RH. In Vitro Developmental Neurotoxicity Following Chronic Exposure to 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Primary Rat Cortical Cultures. Toxicol Sci. 2016 Feb;149(2):433-40. doi: Epub 2015 Nov 15. PMID: 26572663.


Hendriks HS, Westerink RH. Neurotoxicity and risk assessment of brominated and alternative flame retardants. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015 Nov-Dec;52(Pt B):248-69. doi: Epub 2015 Sep 10. PMID: 26363216.

Eubig PA, Westerink RH. Introduction to special issue: Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants and the quest for safer alternatives. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015 Nov-Dec;52(Pt B):118. doi: Epub 2015 Sep 10. PMID: 26363215.

Hondebrink L, Hermans EJ, Schmeink S, van Kleef RG, Meulenbelt J, Westerink RH. Structure-dependent inhibition of the human α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor by piperazine derivatives: A novel mode of action. Neurotoxicology. 2015 Dec;51:1-9. doi: Epub 2015 Sep 4. PMID: 26344803.

Meijer M, Brandsema JA, Nieuwenhuis D, Wijnolts FM, Dingemans MM, Westerink RH. Inhibition of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels After Subchronic and Repeated Exposure of PC12 Cells to Different Classes of Insecticides. Toxicol Sci. 2015 Oct;147(2):607-17. doi: Epub 2015 Jul 17. PMID: 26187449.

de Ree H, van den Berg M, Brand T, Mulder GJ, Simons R, Veldhuijzen van Zanten B, Westerink RH. Reply to letter to the editor. Neurotoxicology. 2015 Jan;46:167-8. doi: Epub 2015 Jan 13. PMID: 5595098.


Heusinkveld HJ, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. In vitro dopaminergic neurotoxicity of pesticides: a link with neurodegeneration? Vet Q. 2014;34(3):120-31. doi: PMID: 25506807.

Nicolas J, Hendriksen PJ, van Kleef RG, de Groot A, Bovee TF, Rietjens IM, Westerink RH. Detection of marine neurotoxins in food safety testing using a multielectrode array. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Dec;58(12):2369-78. doi: Epub 2014 Oct 28. PMID: 25266399.

Hendriks HS, Koolen LA, Dingemans MM, Viberg H, Lee I, Leonards PE, Ramakers GM, Westerink RH. Effects of neonatal exposure to the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A, aluminum diethylphosphinate or zinc stannate on long-term potentiation and synaptic protein levels in mice. Arch Toxicol. 2015 Dec;89(12):2345-54. doi: Epub 2014 Sep 25. PMID: 25253649.

Meijer M, Hendriks HS, Heusinkveld HJ, Langeveld WT, Westerink RH. Comparison of plate reader-based methods with fluorescence microscopy for measurements of intracellular calcium levels for the assessment of in vitro neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2014 Dec;45:31-7. doi: Epub 2014 Sep 16. PMID: 25224521.

de Ree H, van den Berg M, Brand T, Mulder GJ, Simons R, Veldhuijzen van Zanten B, Westerink RH. Health risk assessment of exposure to TriCresyl Phosphates (TCPs) in aircraft: a commentary. Neurotoxicology. 2014 Dec;45:209-15. doi: Epub 2014 Sep 3. PMID: 25193069.

de Groot MW, Kock MD, Westerink RH. Assessment of the neurotoxic potential of exposure to 50Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in naïve and chemically stressed PC12 cells. Neurotoxicology. 2014 Sep;44:358-64. doi: Epub 2014 Aug 8. PMID: 25111744.

Litjens RP, Brunt TM, Alderliefste GJ, Westerink RH. Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder and the serotonergic system: a comprehensive review including new MDMA-related clinical cases. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Aug;24(8):1309-23. doi: Epub 2014 May 20. PMID: 24933532.

Westerink RH. Reply on ‘Prerequisites for a reliable introduction of in vitro neurotoxicity testing within the REACH framework’. Neurotoxicology. 2014 Sep;44:366. doi: Epub 2014 Jun 13. PMID: 24932541.

Meijer M, Dingemans MM, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. Inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels as common mode of action for (mixtures of) distinct classes of insecticides. Toxicol Sci. 2014 Sep;141(1):103-11. doi: Epub 2014 Jun 9. PMID: 24913802; PMCID: PMC4833101.

de Groot DMG, Westerink RHS, Lammers JHCM, Fox DA, van Thriel C, Llorens J. Neurodevelopmental basis of health and disease: the 14th meeting of the International Neurotoxicology Association. Neurotoxicology. 2014 Jul;43:143-159. doi: Epub 2014 May 14. PMID: 24836974.

Llorens J, van Thriel C, Fox DA, Lammers J, Westerink RHS, de Groot DMG. Neurodevelopmental basis of health and disease: the 14th meeting of the International Neurotoxicology Association. Neurotoxicology. 2014 Jul;43:1-2. doi: Epub 2014 Apr 4. PMID: 24709091.

de Groot MWGDM, Westerink RHS. Chemically-induced oxidative stress increases the vulnerability of PC12 cells to rotenone-induced toxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2014 Jul;43:102-109. doi: Epub 2014 Mar 11. PMID: 24631315.

Gassmann K, Schreiber T, Dingemans MM, Krause G, Roderigo C, Giersiefer S, Schuwald J, Moors M, Unfried K, Bergman Å, Westerink RH, Rose CR, Fritsche E. BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 modulate calcium homeostasis in primary fetal human neural progenitor cells via ryanodine receptor-independent mechanisms. Arch Toxicol. 2014 Aug;88(8):1537-48. doi: Epub 2014 Mar 6. PMID: 24599297.

Meijer M, Hamers T, Westerink RHS. Acute disturbance of calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells as a novel mechanism of action for (sub)micromolar concentrations of organophosphate insecticides. Neurotoxicology. 2014 Jul;43:110-116. doi: Epub 2014 Feb 1. PMID: 24495583.

Hendriks HS, Meijer M, Muilwijk M, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. A comparison of the in vitro cyto- and neurotoxicity of brominated and halogen- free flame retardants: prioritization in search for safe(r) alternatives. Arch Toxicol. 2014 Apr;88(4):857-69. doi: Epub 2014 Jan 7. PMID: 24395120.


de Groot MW, Dingemans MM, Rus KH, de Groot A, Westerink RH. Characterization of calcium responses and electrical activity in differentiating mouse neural progenitor cells in vitro. Toxicol Sci. 2014 Feb;137(2):428-35. doi: Epub 2013 Nov 16. PMID: 24241723.

Westerink RH. Do we really want to REACH out to in vitro? Neurotoxicology. 2013 Dec;39:169-72. doi: Epub 2013 Oct 12. PMID: 24125872.

Rijnierse A, Kraneveld AD, Salemi A, Zwaneveld S, Goumans AP, Rychter JW, Thio M, Redegeld FA, Westerink RH, Kroese AB. Immunoglobulinfree light chains reduce in an antigen-specific manner the rate of rise of action potentials of mouse non-nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Neuroimmunol. 2013 Nov 15;264(1-2):14-23. doi: Epub 2013 Aug 31. PMID: 24051200.

Solak KA, Wijnolts FM, Pralong FP, Blaauboer BJ, van den Berg M, Westerink RH, van Duursen MB. In vitro neuroendocrine effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the AhR-expressing hypothalamic rat GnV-3 cell line. Toxicology. 2013 Sep 15;311(3):124-34. doi: Epub 2013 Jul 16. PMID: 23871856.

Heusinkveld HJ, Molendijk J, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. Azole fungicides disturb intracellular Ca2+ in an additive manner in dopaminergic PC12 cells. Toxicol Sci. 2013 Aug;134(2):374-81. doi: Epub 2013 May 24. PMID: 23708404.

Westerink RH. Modulation of cell viability, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, and voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels as common mechanisms of action of (mixtures of) non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 May;21(10):6373-83. doi: Epub 2013 May 18. PMID: 23686757.


Hondebrink L, Tan S, Hermans E, van Kleef RG, Meulenbelt J, Westerink RH. Additive inhibition of human α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors by mixtures of commonly used drugs of abuse. Neurotoxicology. 2013 Mar;35:23-9. doi: Epub 2012 Dec 22. PMID: 23266428.

Rietjens SJ, Hondebrink L, Westerink RH, Meulenbelt J. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): interindividual differences due to polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2012 Nov;42(10):854-76. doi: Epub 2012 Oct 3. PMID: 23030234.

Waaijers SL, Kong D, Hendriks HS, de Wit CA, Cousins IT, Westerink RH, Leonards PE, Kraak MH, Admiraal W, de Voogt P, Parsons JR. Persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;222:1-71. doi: PMID: 22990944.

de Groot MW, Westerink RH, Dingemans MM. Don’t judge a neuron only by its cover: neuronal function in in vitro developmental neurotoxicity testing. Toxicol Sci. 2013 Mar;132(1):1-7. doi: Epub 2012 Sep 7. PMID: 22961093.

Vijverberg HP, Westerink RH. Sense in Pb2+ sensing. Toxicol Sci. 2012 Nov;130(1):1-3. doi: Epub 2012 Jul 12. PMID: 22790969.

Hendriks HS, van Kleef RG, Westerink RH. Modulation of human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by brominated and halogen-free flame retardants as a measure for in vitro neurotoxicity. Toxicol Lett. 2012 Sep 3;213(2):266-74. doi: Epub 2012 Jun 28. PMID: 22750351.

Hendriks HS, van Kleef RG, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. Multiple novel modes of action involved in the in vitro neurotoxic effects of tetrabromobisphenol-A. Toxicol Sci. 2012 Jul;128(1):235-46. doi: Epub 2012 Apr 30. PMID: 22547355.

Westerink RH, Beekwilder JP, Wadman WJ. Differential alterations of synaptic plasticity in dentate gyrus and CA1 hippocampal area of Calbindin-D28K knockout mice. Brain Res. 2012 Apr 23;1450:1-10. doi: Epub 2012 Feb 22. PMID: 22405690.

Langeveld WT, Meijer M, Westerink RH. Differential effects of 20 non-dioxin- like PCBs on basal and depolarization-evoked intracellular calcium levels in PC12 cells. Toxicol Sci. 2012 Apr;126(2):487-96. doi: Epub 2012 Jan 4. PMID: 22218490.

Heusinkveld HJ, Westerink RH. Organochlorine insecticides lindane and dieldrin and their binary mixture disturb calcium homeostasis in dopaminergic PC12 cells. Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Feb 7;46(3):1842-8. doi: Epub 2012 Jan 11. PMID: 22191981.


van Thriel C, Westerink RH, Beste C, Bale AS, Lein PJ, Leist M. Translating neurobehavioural endpoints of developmental neurotoxicity tests into in vitro assays and readouts. Neurotoxicology. 2012 Aug;33(4):911-24. doi: Epub 2011 Oct 12. PMID: 22008243; PMCID: MC3288589.

Hondebrink L, Meulenbelt J, Rietjens SJ, Meijer M, Westerink RH. Methamphetamine, amphetamine, MDMA (‘ecstasy’), MDA and mCPP modulate electrical and cholinergic input in PC12 cells. Neurotoxicology. 2012 Mar;33(2):255-60. doi: Epub 2011 Oct 4. PMID: 21996653.

Stenberg M, Hamers T, Machala M, Fonnum F, Stenius U, Lauy AA, van Duursen MB, Westerink RH, Fernandes EC, Andersson PL. Multivariate toxicity profiles and QSAR modeling of non-dioxin-like PCBs–an investigation of in vitro screening data from ultra-pure congeners. Chemosphere. 2011 Nov;85(9):1423-9. doi: Epub 2011 Sep 3. PMID: 21890175.

Hondebrink L, Meulenbelt J, van Kleef RG, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. Modulation of human GABAA receptor function: a novel mode of action of drugs of abuse. Neurotoxicology. 2011 Dec;32(6):823-7. doi: Epub 2011 Jun 25. PMID: 21729720.

Heusinkveld HJ, Westerink RH. Caveats and limitations of plate reader-based high-throughput kinetic measurements of intracellular calcium levels. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011 Aug 15;255(1):1-8. doi: Epub 2011 Jun 12. PMID: 21684299.

Hondebrink L, Meulenbelt J, Meijer M, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. High concentrations of MDMA (‘ecstasy’) and its metabolite MDA inhibit calcium influx and depolarization-evoked vesicular dopamine release in PC12 cells. Neuropharmacology. 2011 Jul-Aug;61(1-2):202-8. doi: Epub 2011 Apr 7. PMID: 21497613.

van Kempen GT, vanderLeest HT, van den Berg RJ, Eilers P, Westerink RH. Three distinct modes of exocytosis revealed by amperometry in neuroendocrine cells. Biophys J. 2011 Feb 16;100(4):968-77. doi: PMID: 21320441; PMCID: PMC3037570.

Dingemans MM, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants: (in)direct effects of parent and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers on the (developing) nervous system. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Jul;119(7):900-7. doi: Epub 2011 Feb 4. PMID: 21245014; PMCID: PMC3223008.


Adams KL, Maxson MM, Mellander L, Westerink RH, Ewing AG. Estradiol inhibits depolarization-evoked exocytosis in PC12 cells via N-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010 Nov;30(8):1235-42. doi: Epub 2010 Nov 19. PMID: 21088886.

Rychter JW, Van Nassauw L, Timmermans JP, Akkermans LM, Westerink RH, Kroese AB. CGRP1 receptor activation induces piecemeal release of protease-1 from mouse bone marrow-derived mucosal mast cells. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011 Feb;23(2):e57-68. doi: Epub 2010 Oct 21. PMID: 20964790.

Westerink RH, Hondebrink L. Are high-throughput measurements of intracellular calcium using plate-readers sufficiently accurate and reliable? Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010 Dec 15;249(3):247-8; author reply 249-50. doi: Epub 2010 Sep 24. PMID: 20869982.

Hendriks HS, Antunes Fernandes EC, Bergman A, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. PCB-47, PBDE-47, and 6-OH-PBDE-47 differentially modulate human GABAA and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Toxicol Sci. 2010 Dec;118(2):635-42. doi: Epub 2010 Sep 22. PMID: 20861069.

Fernandes EC, Hendriks HS, van Kleef RG, Reniers A, Andersson PL, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. Activation and potentiation of human GABAA receptors by non-dioxin-like PCBs depends on chlorination pattern. Toxicol Sci. 2010 Nov;118(1):183-90. doi: Epub 2010 Sep 6. PMID: 20819908.

Heusinkveld HJ, Thomas GO, Lamot I, van den Berg M, Kroese AB, Westerink RH. Dual actions of lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) on calcium homeostasis and exocytosis in rat PC12 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010 Oct 1;248(1):12-9. doi: Epub 2010 Jun 21. PMID: 20600211.

Dingemans MM, Heusinkveld HJ, Bergman A, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. Bromination pattern of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 affects their potency to release calcium from intracellular stores in PC12 cells. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Apr;118(4):519-25. doi: PMID: 20368133; PMCID: PMC2854729.

Dingemans MM, van den Berg M, Bergman A, Westerink RH. Calcium-related processes involved in the inhibition of depolarization-evoked calcium increase by hydroxylated PBDEs in PC12 cells. Toxicol Sci. 2010 Apr;114(2):302-9. doi: Epub 2009 Dec 31. PMID: 20044592.

Fernandes EC, Hendriks HS, van Kleef RG, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. Potentiation of the human GABA(A) receptor as a novel mode of action of lower- chlorinated non-dioxin-like PCBs. Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Apr 15;44(8):2864-9. doi: PMID: 20014829.


Hondebrink L, Meulenbelt J, Timmerman JG, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. Amphetamine reduces vesicular dopamine content in dexamethasone-differentiated PC12 cells only following L-DOPA exposure. J Neurochem. 2009 Oct;111(2):624-33. doi: Epub 2009 Aug 22. PMID: 19702656.


Dingemans MM, Heusinkveld HJ, de Groot A, Bergman A, van den Berg M, Westerink RH. Hexabromocyclododecane inhibits depolarization-induced increase in intracellular calcium levels and neurotransmitter release in PC12 cells. Toxicol Sci. 2009 Feb;107(2):490-7. doi:  Epub 2008 Dec 4. PMID: 19056936.

van Kleef RG, Vijverberg HP, Westerink RH. Selective inhibition of human heteromeric alpha9alpha10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at a low agonist concentration by low concentrations of ototoxic organic solvents. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008 Sep;22(6):1568-72. doi:  Epub 2008 Jun 18. PMID: 18602458.

Dingemans MM, de Groot A, van Kleef RG, Bergman A, van den Berg M, Vijverberg HP, Westerink RH. Hydroxylation increases the neurotoxic potential of BDE-47 to affect exocytosis and calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 May;116(5):637-43. doi: PMID: 18470311; PMCID: PMC2367675.

Bal-Price AK, Suñol C, Weiss DG, van Vliet E, Westerink RH, Costa LG. Application of in vitro neurotoxicity testing for regulatory purposes: Symposium III summary and research needs. Neurotoxicology. 2008 May;29(3):520-31. doi: Epub 2008 Feb 23. PMID: 18417220.


Westerink RH, Ewing AG. The PC12 cell as model for neurosecretion. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2008 Feb;192(2):273-85. doi: Epub 2007 Nov 15. PMID: 18005394; PMCID: PMC2663028.

Dingemans MM, Ramakers GM, Gardoni F, van Kleef RG, Bergman A, Di Luca M, van den Berg M, Westerink RH, Vijverberg HP. Neonatal exposure to brominated flame retardant BDE-47 reduces long-term potentiation and postsynaptic protein levels in mouse hippocampus. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Jun;115(6):865-70. doi: Epub 2007 Feb 5. PMID: 17589592; PMCID: PMC1892123.


Westerink RH, Rook MB, Beekwilder JP, Wadman WJ. Dual role of calbindin-D28K in vesicular catecholamine release from mouse chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 2006 Oct;99(2):628-40. doi: Epub 2006 Jul 6. PMID: 16824046.

Westerink RH. Targeting exocytosis: ins and outs of the modulation of quantal dopamine release. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2006 Feb;5(1):57-77. doi: PMID: 16613554.


Westerink RH. Exocytosis: using amperometry to study presynaptic mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2004 Mar;25(3):461-70. doi: PMID: 15019309.


Westerink RH, Klompmakers AA, Westenberg HG, Vijverberg HP. Signaling pathways involved in Ca2+- and Pb2+-induced vesicular catecholamine release from rat PC12 cells. Brain Res. 2002 Dec 6;957(1):25-36. doi: PMID: 12443976.

Westerink RH, Vijverberg HP. Vesicular catecholamine release from rat PC12 cells on acute and subchronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002 Sep 15;183(3):153-9. doi: PMID: 12383706.

Westerink RH, Vijverberg HP. Toluene-induced, Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular catecholamine release in rat PC12 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Jun 28;326(2):81-4. doi: PMID: 12057833.

Westerink RH, Vijverberg HP. Ca(2+) -independent vesicular catecholamine release in PC12 cells by nanomolar concentrations of Pb(2+). J Neurochem. 2002 Mar;80(5):861-73. doi: PMID: 11948250.


Westerink RH, de Groot A, Vijverberg HP. Heterogeneity of catecholamine- containing vesicles in PC12 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Apr 13;270(2):625-30. doi: PMID: 10753674.